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Nanobubbles (NB), previously defined as gas-filled bubbles smaller than 1.0 μm, are now characterized as having diameters within 100-200 nm. Produced via hydrodynamic cavitation, these bubbles exhibit distinct properties like high oxygen solubility, prolonged stability in water, and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). While various applications, such as enhancing plant growth, seed germination, microbial proliferation, and micropollutant removal, have been noted, many findings remain anecdotal. Therefore, our research aims to rigorously investigate nanobubbles' benefits in wastewater treatment, agriculture, and aquaponics.

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